Decoding Opex vs. Capex Solar Models in India

Decoding Opex vs. Capex Solar Models in India


In the quest for a cleaner and sustainable energy future, solar energy has emerged as a frontrunner. As India looks to bolster its renewable energy capacity, the choice between operating expenditure (Opex) and capital expenditure (Capex) models becomes crucial. In this blog, we unravel the dynamics of Opex and Capex solar models in the Indian context, exploring the upfront investments, benefits, and considerations associated with each approach.

Understanding Solar Models

Opex Model: A Collaborative Approach

The Opex model is characterized by a third-party ownership structure. In this scenario, a Renewable Energy Service Company (RESCo) invests in, installs, and maintains the solar plant on the client’s premises. The client, often an industrial or commercial entity, benefits from the solar energy generated without the burden of upfront investment.

Upfront Investment: The burden of upfront investment is shifted from the client to the RESCo. This appeals to businesses with limited capital for large-scale solar projects.

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA): The RESCo typically signs a PPA with the client, outlining the cost per unit of solar energy generated. This fixed rate offers stability and predictability for the client.

Accelerated Depreciation: The RESCo can claim accelerated depreciation benefits, further enhancing the financial attractiveness of the Opex model.

Capex Model: Ownership and Control

In contrast, the Capex model involves the client making the upfront investment in the solar plant. The client owns and operates the system, reaping the benefits of lower energy costs and potential revenue from excess energy production.

Upfront Investment: The client bears the upfront investment cost, which includes the purchase and installation of solar panels. However, government incentives and subsidies can alleviate this financial burden.

Cheaper than Grid: Over time, the Capex model proves to be more cost-effective, with the solar plant generating electricity at a lower cost than the grid. This can lead to significant long-term savings.

Accelerated Depreciation: Clients in the Capex model can also leverage accelerated depreciation benefits, contributing to the return on investment.

Factors Influencing the Choice

Financial Considerations:

Budget Constraints: Opex models are favored by entities with limited capital for upfront investment. This makes solar energy accessible to a broader range of businesses.

Long-term Savings: While Capex requires a substantial upfront investment, the long-term savings on energy costs often outweigh the initial financial outlay.

Risk Tolerance:

Risk Allocation: Opex models transfer the operational and performance risks to the RESCo. Capex models, on the other hand, require the client to manage these risks.

Control vs. Convenience: Capex clients have greater control over the solar plant, but Opex clients enjoy the convenience of outsourced management and maintenance.

Regulatory Landscape:

Incentives and Subsidies: Understanding government incentives and subsidies is crucial. Both Opex and Capex models can benefit from accelerated depreciation, but other incentives may vary.

Grid Parity: The evolving grid parity scenario, where solar energy costs become comparable to conventional grid electricity, influences the attractiveness of both models.


In the dynamic landscape of India’s solar energy sector, the choice between Opex and Capex models is nuanced. While the Opex model offers a low-risk, low-upfront investment avenue, the Capex model provides long-term ownership and potentially greater savings. Businesses must weigh their financial capacity, risk tolerance, and long-term goals to make an informed decision.

As the nation propels towards a greener and sustainable energy future, the role of solar models in reshaping the energy landscape cannot be overstated. Whether through collaborative Opex ventures or individually owned Capex projects, solar energy stands as a beacon of hope, offering a cleaner and economically viable alternative to conventional power sources.

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