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How does solar work?

Solar panels convert sunlight into electricity using photovoltaic cells. Panels consist of silicon cells, protective glass, and plastic/metal substrate.

When the sunlight (photons) strikes a panel, it excites electrons, completing an electric circuit that generates direct current (DC) which is converted into alternating current (AC) using an inverter and then transferred to the home.

#1 Solar Panels

Sunrays fall on solar panels. Solar panels convert the solar energy to direct current (DC).

#2 Inverter

The Inverter, one of the main components of the solar system, converts the direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) which is used by all the electrical appliances in your home. There are two main types of popular inverters in India: String Inverters and Microinverters. Click Here two know more.

#3 Bi-directional net-meter

A meter is added to the system to measure the energy production of the system and energy consumption in a house.

The excess energy generated is transferred back to the grid and in return, you are paid a specified rate per unit determined by the electricity distribution company (DISCOM).

#4 Electricity transferred to the grid

The AC supply is used by home appliances and excess electricity is transferred to the grid

There are various types of solar panels in the market, but the most popular are Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline solar panels:

Monocrystalline solar panels

Made up of single silicon crystal

High-efficiency level

Require less space

More expensive

Lower degradation rate of 0.5% per year

Polycrystalline solar panels

Made up of multiple silicon crystals

Lower-efficiency level

Require more space

Cheaper

Higher degradation rate of 0.7% per year

There are some new PV panel technologies coming up:

1. TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact): Utilizes a thin oxide layer between polysilicon and crystalline silicon for high conversion efficiency.

2. HJT (Heterojunction) panels: Combine silicon-based cells with thin-film technology, enhancing efficiency and light collection. They perform well in diverse conditions and boast an attractive design.

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